Tuesday, December 22, 2009


Nafs is an Arabic word meaning self or psyche. It is first among the six Lataif (cleanliness) or Lataif-e-sitta.

In Sufi teachings, it means more of false ego. When Sufis talk about opposing Nafs, they mean Nafs Ammara that is explained later. For psychological interpretations of Nafs, see Islamic psychological thought.

Nafs-i-ammara (The Commanding Self)

The Quran refers to "the Nafs commanding to evil" ([Qur'an 12:53]). In its primitive stage, the ego tells one to commit evil. This is what Sufis refer to when they speak of fighting Nafs. The prophet Muhammad said after returning from a war, "We now return from the small struggle (Jihad Asghar) to the big struggle (Jihad Akbar)". His companions asked, "Oh prophet of God, what is the big struggle?". He replied, "The struggle against Nafs". However, this hadith has been graded as weak.

It has seven heads that must be defeated:

1. False Pride (Takabbur)

2. Greed (Hirs)

3. Envy (Hasad)

4. Lust (Shahwah)

5. Back Biting (Gheebah)

6. Stinginess (Bokhl)

7. Malice (Keena)

Nafs-i-lawwama (The Regretful Self)

The Quran refers to "the regretful Nafs" ([Qur'an 75:2])This is the stage of awakening. On this level the conscience is awakened and the self accuses one for listening to one’s ego. One repents and asks for forgiveness. Here the Nafs is inspired by your heart, sees the results of your actions, agrees with your brain, sees your weaknesses, and aspires to perfection.

Nafs-i-mulhama (The Inspired Self)

This is the stage of action. On this level one becomes more firm in listening to one’s conscience, but is not yet surrendered. Once you have seen your weaknesses and have set your targets, this ego inspires you to do good deeds and to be on the plus side. Sufi says that it is important that whenever you think of good, you must immediately act upon it. Abbas Bin Abdul Muttalib lays down three rules:

1. Ta'Jeel or Swiftness. A good deed must be done immediately and there should be no laziness

2. Tehqeer or Contempt. You must look at your good acts with contempt otherwise you will become self-righteous

3. Ikhfa or Secrecy. You must keep your good acts secret otherwise people will praise you and it will make you self-righteous

Nafs-i-mutma'inna (The Contented Self)

The Quran refers to "the Nafs at peace" ([Qur'an 89:27]). This is the ideal stage of ego for Sufis. On this level one is firm in one’s faith and leaves bad manners behind. The soul becomes tranquil, at peace. At this stage Sufis have relieved themselves of all materialism and worldly problems and are satisfied with the will of God.

Nafs-i-radiyya (The Pleased Self)

On this level one is pleased with whatever comes from Allah and doesn’t live in the past or future, but in the moment. One thinks always: ‘Ilahi Anta Maqsudi wa ridhaka matlubi’. One always sees oneself as weak and in need of Allah.

Nafs-i-mardiyya (The Pleasing Self)

On this level the two Ruhs in man have made peace. One is soft and tolerant with people and has good Akhlak, good manners.

Nafs-i-safiyya (The Pure Self)

On this level one is dressed in the attributes of the Insan Kamil, the perfected man, who is completely surrendered and inspired by Allah. One is in full agreement with the Will of Allah.

Note-The excerpts are translations from the Persian text Shahid ul Wojood, written two hundred years ago.

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